The visual culture in modern Turkey starts in 19th century. This has been a transition from a certain understanding of visuality to the Western type of visuality. However, the social background of this transition is still obscure. The course aims to discuss the early problems of the 19th century and the developments of the Republican era with a peculiar emphasis on the social and cultural issues. In the second part of the term, the course will be open to some contemporary artists and their presentations.